USQUE, SAMUEL


USQUE, SAMUEL
USQUE, SAMUEL (16th century), Portuguese Marrano. All that is known about Usque comes from his Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel ("Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel", Ferrara. 1553; second ed., Amsterdam, 1599). This unusual work reveals that the author was a man of unusually broad culture and of Spanish descent – his family having emigrated from Spain in 1492. He knew many languages, including Hebrew; he was versed in classical literature, in the Bible, and in Jewish and Christian postbiblical literature. There is no evidence that he is to be identified with solomon usque , the poet-playwright, or with abraham usque , who printed the first edition of the Consolaçam, or with the Portuguese belle-trist, bernardim ribeiro . Written in limpid Portuguese prose, the Consolaçam was dedicated to the great patroness of Jewish art and culture, Doña gracia nasi . Its avowed purpose was to persuade Marrano refugees from Spain and Portugal, and perhaps also those Marranos who were still in those two countries, to return   wholeheartedly to Judaism. To this end the author, in a sweeping review of Jewish history, based upon traditional Jewish apologetics, demonstrated that the Jews, despite their centuries of hardship and persecution, had not been abandoned by God; they were rather, he declared, standing on the threshold of the golden messianic age. The Consolaçam takes the form of a typically Renaissance pastoral dialogue between three shepherds, Zicareo, Numeo, and Ycabo – the names being thin disguises for those of the prophets Zechariah (the "Recaller"), Nahum (the "Comforter"), and Jacob, the eponymous hero of the Jewish people, who narrates the history of the Jews in the first person. The three sections of the book, dealing respectively with the eras of the First Temple, the Second Temple and subsequent Jewish history up until Usque's own day, form an integrated work which yields numerous insights into the mind of Usque's generation. Furthermore, the third dialogue contains invaluable accounts and impressions of events which the author experienced personally. The first edition of the Consolaçam was, for the most part, destroyed by the Inquisition shortly after its publication. The second edition, also rare, marks the beginning of Sephardi literature in the Netherlands. The work is regarded as a major contribution to Jewish historiography, and as a classic of Portuguese prose. An English translation by M.A. Cohen appeared in 1965. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Mendes dos Remedios (ed.), Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel (1906–08); M.A. Cohen (tr. and ed.), Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel (1965), 3–5; E. Lipiner (tr.), Bay di Taykhen fun Portugal (1949). (Martin A. Cohen)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Usque, Samuel — (fl. 16th cent)    Portuguese poet and historian. He was born in Spain, but his family emigrated to Portugal in 1492. His Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel was designed to persuade marranos to return to Judaism …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Samuel Usque — (* um 1500 in Lissabon; † nach 1555 in Italien oder Palästina, eventuell in Safed) war ein portugiesischer Dichter und Historiker. Er ist der Verfasser der Consolação às tribulações de Israel. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Consolação às… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SAMUEL USQUE — (XVIe s.) Historien juif originaire du Portugal, auteur d’un classique de la littérature portugaise, Consolation aux tribulations d’Israël (Consolaç ao as tribulaç oes de Israel , Ferrare, 1553). Sa biographie est mal connue: issu d’ancêtres… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • USQUE, ABRAHAM — USQUE, ABRAHAM, Marrano printer. Born in Portugal and known there as Duarte Pinel (Pinhel), Usque fled from the Inquisition shortly after 1543, established himself at Ferrara, and became associated with the press established by the Spanish ex… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Usque — ist der Name einer marranisch jüdischen Familie, die aus Portugal nach Italien auswanderte. Der Name leitet sich wahrscheinlich von dem Ort Huesca in Spanien her.[1] Bekannte Namensträger Die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der folgenden Personen sind …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Samuel von Pufendorf — Samuel von Pufendorf, Kupferstich von Joachim von Sandrart Samuel Freiherr von Pufendorf (* 8. Januar 1632 in Dorfchemnitz; † 26. Oktober 1694 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Naturrechtsphilosoph, Historiker sowie Natur und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Samuel Freiherr von Pufendorf — Samuel von Pufendorf, Kupferstich von Joachim von Sandrart Samuel Freiherr von Pufendorf (* 8. Januar 1632 in Dorfchemnitz, Kursachsen; † 26. Oktober 1694 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Naturrechtsphilosoph …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Samuel Pufendorf — Samuel von Pufendorf, Kupferstich von Joachim von Sandrart Samuel Freiherr von Pufendorf (* 8. Januar 1632 in Dorfchemnitz, Kursachsen; † 26. Oktober 1694 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Naturrechtsphilosoph …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Samuel von Pufendorf — Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (January 8, 1632 ndash; October 13, 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist, statesman, and historian. His name was just Samuel Pufendorf until he was ennobled in 1684; he was made a Freiherr (baron) …   Wikipedia

  • SAMUEL — I. SAMUEL Bulgarorum Princeps, vicit primo Basilium iMperatorem Constantinop. mox ab eodem victus et in extremam Bulgaliam reiectus, cum XV. Mill. captivorum a victore excaecata, centenariô solum unoculô relictô, sicque in patriam remissa… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale


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